دیکشنری رشته کشاورزی

This dictionary provides a basic vocabulary of agricultural terms. It is ideal
for students of land management, environmental and veterinary sciences,
and is a handy reference for those working in the agriculture industries,
especially those for whom English is not a first language.
Each headword is explained in clear, straightforward English and quotations
from newspapers and specialist magazines show how the words are used in
context. There are also supplements including conversion tables for weights
and measures and a list of world commodity markets.
Thanks are due to Dr Mark Lyne, Department of Science, Agriculture and
Technology, Writtle College and to Dr Stephen Chadd, Course Director at
the Royal Agricultural College, for their help and advice during the
production of this new edition.
Pronunciation Guide
The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main
words in the dictionary.
Stress is indicated by a main stress mark (  ) and a secondary stress mark (  ) . Note
that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its position
in the sentence.
Vowels Consonants
 back b buck
ɑ harm d dead
ɒ stop ð other
ai type d jump
aυ how f fare
aiə hire gold
aυə hour h head
ɔ course j yellow
ɔi annoy k cab
e head l leave
eə fair m mix
ei make n nil
eυ go ŋ sing
 word p print
i keep r rest
i happy s save
ə about ʃ shop
i fit t take
iə near tʃ change
u annual θ theft
u pool v value
υ book w work
υə tour x loch
 shut measure
z zone
Pronunciation is given only for technical entries. For a full guide to pronunciation
of all basic words and phrases, the A & C Black Easier English Intermediate
Dictionary (0-7475-6989-4, £۹٫۹۹) is recommended.
AAAA abbreviation Arboricultural Association
AAPP AAPP abbreviation Average All Pigs
AAPS AAPS abbreviation Arable Area
Payments Scheme
Abandonment of Animals Act 1960 Abandonment of Animals Act
۱۹۶۰ noun an Act of Parliament which
made it an offence to leave an animal unattended
if this was likely to cause distress or
pain to the animal
abattoir abattoir noun a place where animals are
slaughtered and prepared for sale to the
public as meat
abdomen abdomen noun a space in the body situated
below or behind the diaphragm and
above or in front of the pelvis, containing
the stomach, intestines, liver and other
vital organs
Aberdeen Angus Aberdeen Angus /bədin ŋəs/
noun an early maturing breed of beef
cattle, which are naturally hornless and
usually black all over. Aberdeen Angus
cattle usually have a rather small headed
and a long deep body. They are highly
valued for quality beef.
abiotic abiotic /eibai|ɒtik/ adjective not
relating to a living organism  abiotic
abiotic stress abiotic stress noun stress caused by
environmental factors such as drought or
extreme heat or cold, not by biological
abiotic stress resistance abiotic stress resistance noun
resistance in organisms to stress arising
from non-biological causes such as
abomasal ulcer abomasal ulcer /bəυmeis(ə)l  lsə/
noun a disease common in both calves and
adult cattle. Calves show poor growth and
lose appetite. In rare cases, cows may bleed
to death.
abomasum abomasum /bəυ|meisəm/ noun the
fourth stomach of a ruminant.  omasum,
reticulum, rumen
abort abort verb 1. to stop a process or the
development of something before it is
finished, or to stop developing  The
flowers abort and drop off in hot, dry
conditions, with no fruit developing. 2. to
end a pregnancy in an animal and prevent
the birth of young 3. to give birth before
the usual end of a pregnancy (technical)
Also called miscarry
abortion abortion noun a situation when a pregnancy
in a farm animal ends prematurely,
generally as the result of a disease or infection
abreast parlour abreast parlour /ə|brest pɑlə/ noun a
type of milking parlour where the cows
stand side by side with their heads facing
away from the milker.  herringbone
parlour, rotary parlour
abscess abscess noun a painful swollen area
where pus forms
abscission abscission /b|siʃ(ə)n/ noun the shedding
of a leaf or fruit due to the formation
of a layer of cells between the leaf or fruit
and the rest of the plant (NOTE: It occurs
naturally in autumn, e.g. leaf fall, or at any
time of the year in response to stress.)
absorb absorb verb to take something in  Warm
air absorbs moisture more easily than cold
air.  Salt absorbs moisture from the air.
absorption absorption noun 1. the process of taking
in water, dissolved minerals and other
nutrients across cell membranes 2. the
taking into the body of substances such as
proteins or fats which have been digested
from food and enter the bloodstream from
the stomach and intestines 3. the taking up
of one type of substance by another, e.g. of
a liquid by a solid or of a gas by a liquid
abstract 2
abstract abstract /b|strkt/ verb to remove
water from a river so that it can be used by
industry, farmers or gardeners
abstraction abstraction /b|strkʃən/ noun 1. the
removal of water from a river or other
source for use by industry, farmers or
gardeners 2. the removal of something
such as gas, oil, mineral resources or gravel
from the ground
Acacia Acacia /ə|keiʃə/ noun a species of tree
often grown for its pretty leaves and blossoms
ACAF ACAF abbreviation Advisory Committee
on Animal Feedingstuffs
acariasis acariasis /kə|raiəsis/ noun a skin
disease caused by ticks or mites
acaricide acaricide /ə|krisaid/ noun a substance
used to kill mites and ticks. Also called
acarid acarid /kərid/ noun a small animal
which feeds on plants or other animals by
piercing the outer skin and sucking juices,
e.g. a mite or tick
Acarida Acarida /ə|kridə/ noun the order of
animals including mites and ticks. Also
called Acarina
acaridicide acaridicide /kə|ridisaid/ noun same
as acaricide
Acarina Acarina /kə|rinə/ noun same as
ACAS ACAS /eiks/ abbreviation Advisory,
Conciliation and Arbitration Service
ACC ACC abbreviation Agricultural Credit
acceptable daily intake acceptable daily intake noun the
quantity of a substance such as a nutrient,
vitamin, additive or pollutant which a
person or animal can safely consume daily
over their lifetime. Abbr ADI
‘A UK wide consultation on the use of the
colourant canthaxanthin in animal feed,
used to give farmed salmon its pink
colour, has been launched by the Food
Standards Agency. Brussels’ Scientific
Committee on Animal Nutrition said:
“Some consumers of high levels of
produce from farmed fish were likely to
exceed the acceptable daily intake for
canthaxanthin”.’ [The Grocer]
access access noun 1. a place of entry, or the
right of entry, to somewhere 2. the right of
the public to go onto uncultivated private
land for recreation.  Countryside and
Rights of Way Act
acclimatisation acclimatisation /ə|klaimətai|
zeiʃ(ə)n/, acclimatization, acclimation
/klə|meiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of
adapting to a different environment (NOTE:
This process is known as acclimatisation
if the changes occur naturally and acclimation
if they are produced in laboratory
COMMENT: When an organism such as a
plant or animal is acclimatising, it is
adapting physically to different environmental
conditions, such as changes in
food supply, temperature or altitude.
accommodation land accommodation land noun land
available for short-term tenancy
accredit accredit /ə|kredit/ verb to recognise
accredited herd accredited herd noun a herd of cattle
registered under a scheme as being free
from Brucellosis
accredited milk accredited milk noun milk from a herd
accredited as being free from Brucellosis
accumulated temperature accumulated temperature noun the
number of hours during which the temperature
is above a particular point, taken as
the minimum temperature necessary for
growing a specific crop (NOTE: In the UK,
this is usually taken to be the number of
hours above 6°C.)
acer acer /eisə/ noun a maple or sycamore
tree. Genus: Acer.
acetonaemia acetonaemia /ə|sitəυ|nimiə/ noun a
disease affecting cows, caused by ketone
bodies accumulating. The animal loses
appetite and the smell of acetone affects
the breath, the urine and milk.
acetone acetone noun a colourless liquid that has
a sweetish smell and is flammable, used as
a solvent and in the manufacture of organic
chemicals. Formula: CH3COCH3.
achene achene /ə|kin/ noun a dry single-seeded
fruit that does not split open (NOTE:
Achenes are produced by plants such as
dandelions and sunflowers.)
acid acid noun 1. a chemical compound
containing hydrogen which dissolves in
water and forms hydrogen ions, or reacts
with an alkali to form a salt and water, and
turns litmus paper red 2. any bitter juice
acid deposition acid deposition /sid depə|ziʃ(ə)n/
noun same as acid rain
acid grassland acid grassland noun a type of vegetation
that typically grows on soils that drain
freely and are low in mineral nutrients, and
may also occur on post-industrial sites.
The range of plant species found is small. 
calcareous grassland

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